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# Tag Archives: vacuum fluctuations

## More on Cosmological constant

A constant introduced by Einstein (1917) into the equations of general relativity to allow a steady state cosmological solution to the Einstein field equations. The constant was introduced before the concept of the Big Bang had been conceived, so an expanding or contracting universe was regarded as physically implausible, leading Einstein to add as a "fudge factor." In theory, the constant can be derived from quantum field theory, but the derivation has not yet been performed. Einstein’s cosmological constant is equivalent to a vacuum energy density, which means it can be put on the left hand side of Einstein’s equations with the geometry (as Einstein did), or on the right hand side with the stress-energy, both forms being mathematically equivalent.

The value of in our present universe is not known, and may be zero, although there is some evidence for a nonzero value; a precise determination of this number will be one of the primary goals of observational cosmology in the near future.

The value of the cosmological constant is an empirical issue which will ultimately be settled by observation; meanwhile, physicists would like to develop an understanding of why the energy density of the vacuum has this value, whether it is zero or not. There are many effects which contribute to the total vacuum energy,

including the potential energy of scalar fields and the energy in “vacuum fluctuations” as predicted by quantum mechanics, as well as any fundamental cosmological constant.

If the recent observational suggestions of a nonzero are confirmed, we will be faced with the additional task of inventing a theory which sets the vacuum energy to a very small value without setting it precisely to zero. In this case we may distinguish between a “true” vacuum which would be the state of lowest possible energy which simply happens to be nonzero, and a “false” vacuum, which would be a metastable state different from the actual state of lowest energy (which might well have = 0). Such a state could eventually decay into the true vacuum, although its lifetime could be much larger than the current age of the universe. A

final possibility is that the vacuum energy is changing with time — a dynamical cosmological “constant”. This alternative, which is sometimes called “quintessence”, would also be compatible with a true vacuum energy which was ultimately zero, although it appears to require a certain amount of fine-tuning to make it work.

No matter which of these possibilities, if any, is true, the ramifications of an accelerating universe for fundamental physics would be truly profound.

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## Black Holes and Thermal Radiation

**Varun G asked**

“Do black holes produce thermal radiation, as expected on theoretical grounds and do they absorb light?”

**Ans**: Hope you are talking about the **Hawking radiation**.

Any body at a temperature above absolute zero emits radiations. If the temperature of black body is not absolute zero (It was Stephen Hawking who predicted that black holes should have a finite, non-zero temperature, and hence the name “Hawking Radiation”) it will emit radiation.

In a black hole emitting radiation, there is a loss of mass. If the mass decreased due to Hawking Radiation is more than the mass gained by the black holes via alternate means, the net mass of the black holes will go on decreasing. (This is called “**black hole evaporation**” Further, it has been noted that the black holes with lower mass emit more radiations than the heavier ones.

This answer may seem contradicting the definition of black hole itself.

“A black hole is a body whose gravitational force of attraction is so huge that even electromagnetic radiation cannot escape from it” as the definition goes.

But the Hawking Radiation is caused by Quantum effects. The processes behind the “escape” of radiation from a black hole is thought to be

- Vacuum Fluctuations and
- Quantum tunneling

The above terms and concept will be too high to be discussed at school level. However for the curious ones, I am giving some links to explore.

- http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2000/plewis/Main.html
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_body
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_hole_thermodynamics
- http://www.braungardt.com/Physics/Vacuum%20Fluctuation.htm
- http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16095-its-confirmed-matter-is-merely-vacuum-fluctuations.html?full=true&print=true
- http://phys.educ.ksu.edu/vqm/html/qtunneling.html