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In NCERT TEXT BOOK it is written that
Since U is a state variable, ΔU depends only on the initial and final states and not on the path taken by the gas to go from one to the other. However, ΔQ and ΔW will, in general, depend on the path taken to go from the initial to final states. From the First Law of Thermodynamics,it is clear that the combination ΔQ – ΔW, is however, path independent.
ΔQ and ΔW will, in general, depend on the path taken ??andΔQ – ΔW, is however, path independent.
Asked Krishan Billa
A thermodynamic variable may be intensive or extensive.
What are intensive variables?
The variables which are independent of size or amount of substance are called intensive variables.
Example: Density is an intensive variable. (because it does not depend on the amount of that substance)
What are extensive variables?
Example: Mass and volume are extensive variables. (Because they are directly measuring the amount of substance)
“how to calculate molar the heat capacity of a gas
given cp and cv of the gas?”
Specific heat capacity of a substance is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of that substance through 1oC. It can be measured at constant pressure (Cp) and at constant volume (Cv).
Molar heat capacity of a substance is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 mole of the substance by 1oC.
∴ Molar heat capacity = Specific heat capacity × Molecular weight,
Cv = cv × M and Cp = cp × M.