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# Tag Archives: Philosophy

## Zeno’s paradox of Achilles and the tortoise

Can you please explain Zeno’s paradox Achilles and the tortoise, well i have read about it in many websites and books but i don’t completely understand it.

Asked Sudha Parimala

Answer

Achilles and the tortoise paradox is one of the four paradoxes collectively known as

**Zeno’s paradoxes. **

The statement of Achilles and the tortoise paradox goes like this:

“A fleet-of-foot Achilles is unable to catch a plodding tortoise which has been given a head start, since during the time it takes Achilles to catch up to a given position, the tortoise has moved forward some distance.”

But the above paradoxical statement is not real. It will of course make us think and many may tend to agree with that.

A detailed explanation was found at the link below

http://platonicrealms.com/encyclopedia/Zenos-Paradox-of-the-Tortoise-and-Achilles

The story tells that the tortoise argued with Achilles that, if given a head start, He will never be able to overtake him. He argued on the lines and convinced the Achilles and He agreed to the argument.

The above link also presents Thomson’s paradox (http://platonicrealms.com/encyclopedia/Zenos-Paradox-of-the-Tortoise-and-Achilles)

Consider a lamp, with a switch. Hit the switch once, it turns it on. Hit it again, it turns it off. Let us imagine there is a being with supernatural powers who likes to play with this lamp as follows. First, he turns it on. At the end of one minute, he turns it off. At the end of half a minute, he turns it on again. At the end of a quarter of a minute, he turns it off. In one eighth of a minute, he turns it on again. And so on, hitting the switch each time after waiting exactly one-half the time he waited before hitting it the last time. Applying the above discussion, it is easy to see that all these infinitely many time intervals add up to exactly two minutes.

QUESTION: At the end of two minutes, is the lamp on, or off?

ANOTHER QUESTION: Here the lamp started out being off. Would it have made any difference if it had started out being on?

Think it over!!!

## What is induction and deduction?

What is induction and deduction? (Asked Anamika Singh)

Answer:

Induction and deduction are the two ways of arriving at conclusions in Philosophy.

In **induction**, you start with a limited number of observations and *increase *that number by generalizing.

in **deduction**, you start with a set of possibilities and reduce it until a smaller subset remains.

Read more at : –

- http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/thinking-logically-deduction-and-induction.html

- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deduction_and_induction
- https://school.carm.org/amember/files/demo3/2_logic/deduction_induction.htm
- http://www.butte.edu/~wmwu/iLogic/1.3/iLogic_1_3.html

## Time Paradox

Question: In Michio Kaku’s book Parallel Universes, it addresses the infinite possibility of a “time river” in correlation with Time Travel and its respective paradoxes. The one is question would be the grandfather paradox, in which if one would travel back in time and dispatch their parents his own future would would be “impossible”.

It has been suggested than not unlike a fork in the river, his own sequence of events that portray his future would remain unaffected rather the action would invoke a split or fork in the river to extend a parallel future to which he did not exist. Can you please prescribe further insight to this conundrum and any further literature on this subject would be much appreciated. For reference this is discussed on the last 4-5 pages of Chapter 5 in the book.

Asked by Z King