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What is impact parameter?

Impact parameter is the perpendicular distance between the velocity vectors of two objects (considered to take part in a collision) when they are at infinite distance (at such a distance that there is no interaction between the two particles)

In Rutherford’s alpha scattering experiment, the gold nucleus is at rest and therefore, in this case

Impact parameter is the perpendicular distance between the gold nucleus and the the direction of the velocity vector of alpha particle when the alpha particle is at infinite distance (i.e; the force of interaction between the gold nucleus and the alpha particle is negligibly small)

Problem from Kinematics

Devika posted:

There are two particles A and B moving with same velocity u such that initially there velocity are perpendicular to each other and distance between them is L.the velocity of A is always directed towards B.find the distance between them after a long time.

Ans will be posted soon

LIGHT IS TRANSVERSE

In transverse wave,the particles vibrate perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

“light is a transverse wave.”
but light can be propagated without a medium , that is particles.
so, how can light be called as a transverse wave?

Answer:

Light is an electromagnetic wave which requires no medium for the propagation. In electromagnetic waves including light, electric and magnetic fields vary with time in mutually perpendicular directions and also perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

Force on a charged particle

What is the force experienced by a charged particle moving perpendicular to an electric field? I understand that when it is moving parallel to the electric field, it accelerates.

(Shrishti asked)

Answer:

When a charged particle is at rest in an electric field, it experiences a force in the direction of electric field (if it is a positive charge)

If it is moving in the direction of electric field, it will be accelerated.

If it is moving opposite to the electric field, it will be decelerated.

If it is moving perpendicular to the electric field, its trajectory will be a parabola, similar to that of a horizontal projectile

Refraction through Prism – A Question

A light ray falls perpendicular to one of the faces of a glass prism of angle 60 and refractive index 1.5,
Find;
a) the angle of emergence.
b) the angle of deviation.
Answer:
The question implies that the angle of incidence is 0
The ray will enter without any deviation. Therefore, the angle of incidence at the second face inside the prism = 60 degree
(From A +90+ (90-r2)=180)
Since the critical angle for glass is less than this, the ray of light will undergo total internal reflection. So it reflects towards the base internally.

Vector Addition Problem – A Spy Report

A spy report about a suspended car reads as follows.”the car moved 2.00 km towards east,made a perpendicular left turn, ran for 500 m, made a perpendicular left turn, ran for 4.00 km and stopped”. Find the displacement of the car.

Answer: 2061.5 m

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Questions Waiting to be answered at AskPhysics

  1. In the chapter electrostatics,we studied about electric flux. there area vector is considered and my teacher told that it is perpendicular to the surface. but i didn’t get what does it mean yet now.would Ask Physics Doubtsyou please mind helping me to knw abt it? can you define it in simplr words?
  2. why gausian surface is to be considered??
  3. we know force is a vector quantity. so it should be added by using vector addition methods. but by superposition principle, we just add two/more forces. how can we relate these??
  4. intensity of electric field is defined as the force experienced by unit possitive charge at that point. we know
    E=F/q = k.q/r2. but in the case of only one charge placed at a point, how r is to be considered? is there any electric field intensity?
  5. speed of light is cosmic speed limit.why?
  6. what is the frequency of sound produced by a aluminium string
  7. I want to know about the pointed conductors on the top of the building that r used to send the thunders into the ground. The area that the pointed conductors cover ,is it possible to  send the thunders into the ground on the large buildings of huge area.
  8. name of two materials used for making resistance wire
  9. we have theory in atomic structure that mass of electron in motion deffers fron at being rest and it will be equal to infinitive if it travel with the speed of light , if it is really applicable to all the masive particles , mass of photon wouldalso be equal to infinite and as it travells with the speed of light,then it would form a black hole entire world will be a black hole then ,what is your explaination to this?
  10. I watch a lot of Rugby League, and there is a rule that the ball must be thrown either backwards, or sideways, but never forwards.
    My question is this: If a player is running forward and passes the ball exactly sideways (perpendicular to the running direction), will the ball travel forwards relative to the ground or will the momentum of the player be transferred to the ball?
  11. a metre scale is caliberated @degree celsius to give correct reading.Find the distance between 50 cm and 51 cm if the scale is used @10 degree celsius.coefficient of linear expansion of steel is 1.1*10-5.
    answers given in two books are 1.00011cm and 0.99988. why this contradiction?
  12. Can mass be a negative? if yes plz explain me…
  13. set up the schordingers time independent equation for a linear harmonic oscillator?
  14. we have partially designed a transmission system with the help of springs which in function would be able to replicate gears but we are unable to understand the mechanics of the system for prediction. It was just a idea that we decided to try out and on our trials the system seems to work but is chaotic can you help us with the mathematics of it.
  15. What is the reason for gravity ?
  16. Why the light is transmitted by a polarizing sheet is always polarized parallel to the polarizing direction of sheet ?
  17. Light of wavelength 450 nm is incident normally on a grating with 300 lines per millimeter. How many orders of diffraction maxima can be obtained?
  18. why water has more dielectric constant  than mica. please explain.
  19. A ball suspended by a thread swings in a vertical plane so that its accleration values in the extreme and lowest position are equal.Find the thread deflection angle in the extreme position?
  20. A body of mass 5kg is taken on equitorial plane. But due to some change earth’s diurnal motion, its weight has become zero. What will be the length of day now?
  21. Over the course of about six weeks in 1992, Aki Matusushima, from Japan, rode a unicycle more than 3000 mi across the United States. Suppose Matsushima is riding through a city. If he travels 250.0 m east oone street, then turns counterclockwise through a 120 degree angle and proceed 125.0 m northwest along a diagonal street, what is his net displacement?
  22. when the distance between the sun and the earth is halved how many days would be there in one year of earth?
  23. can mass of a charged particle be infinite and if yes explain how and when?????
  24. What is the physical interpretation of the imaginary part of schrodinger’s wave functions?
  25. why our eyes cannot give chromatic aberration? and why is it that way?
  26. why bicycle wheels are fitted with spokes?
  27. When an oscillator circulates constantly with a stable periodicity (by positive feedback loop) can it evolve (in its periodicity)  the other oscillators which periodicities circulate by negative feedback loops?
  28. How we understand ic chips?
  29. How magnetic field and electric field support to each other in the propagation of E.M waves?
  30. Two winches on a wharf, attached by cables (say 100m long)to a floating buoy (say 100m distance D from the wharf), pulling on the buoy at the same constant rate (say 10m of cable wound in per sec). If the winches are side-by-side (Separation S=0m)then there is no accelleration of the buoy, just a constant 10m/sec velocity (V) and the buoy takes 10 secs to reach the wharf (D=0). If however, the winches are 10m apart to start with (S=10m), then the buoy accellerates as it gets closer to the wharf (as D decreases). If the winches are 20m apart then the accelleration is even greater than at 10m apart! I would really like to know what the relationship is(equation)between the separation of the winches (S), the distance of the buoy from the wharf (D)and the change in velocity of the buoy (V). It appears to be an inverse exponential relationship between V increasing and D decreasing, and the relationship is directly proportional to the separation S. I have used Pythagoras’s Theorm (D-squared + S/2-squared = L-squared)to calculate the change in speed of the buoy, for differing separations of the winches. The further apart the winches are, the closer the buoy is to the wharf to start with. Hope this makes sense.
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