Home » Posts tagged 'Nobel Prize in Physics'
Tag Archives: Nobel Prize in Physics
Sir C.V. Raman, the Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science in India was born on 7 November 1988. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect.
Venkata Raman was born in Thiruvanaikaval, Trichinopoly, Madras Presidency, in British India to R. Chandrasekhara Iyer (b. 1866) and Parvati Ammal (Saptarshi Parvati).
His father was a lecturer in mathematics and physics at Presidency College in Madras, which Raman entered in 1902 at the age of 13. In 1904 he passed his B.A. examination in first place and won the gold medal in physics, and in 1907 he gained his M.A. degree with the highest distinctions.
Get more details at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._V._Raman
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 was awarded jointly to Englert and Peter W. Higgs “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 for the theory of how particles acquire mass. In 1964, they proposed the theory independently of each other (Englert together with his now deceased colleague Robert Brout). In 2012, their ideas were confirmed by the discovery of a so called Higgs particle at the CERN laboratory outside Geneva in Switzerland..
The awarded theory is a central part of the Standard Model of particle physics that describes how the world is constructed. According to the Standard Model, everything, from flowers and people to stars and planets, consists of just a few building blocks: matter particles. These particles are governed by forces mediated by force particles that make sure everything works as it should.
The entire Standard Model also rests on the existence of a special kind of particle: the Higgs particle. This particle originates from an invisible field that fills up all space. Even when the universe seems empty this field is there. Without it, we would not exist, because it is from contact with the field that particles acquire mass. The theory proposed by Englert and Higgs describes this process.
On 4 July 2012, at the CERN laboratory for particle physics, the theory was confirmed by the discovery of a Higgs particle. CERN’s particle collider, LHC (Large Hadron Collider), is probably the largest and the most complex machine ever constructed by humans. Two research groups of some 3,000 scientists each, ATLAS and CMS, managed to extract the Higgs particle from billions of particle collisions in the LHC.
Even though it is a great achievement to have found the Higgs particle — the missing piece in the Standard Model puzzle — the Standard Model is not the final piece in the cosmic puzzle. One of the reasons for this is that the Standard Model treats certain particles, neutrinos, as being virtually massless, whereas recent studies show that they actually do have mass. Another reason is that the model only describes visible matter, which only accounts for one fifth of all matter in the cosmos. To find the mysterious dark matter is one of the objectives as scientists continue the chase of unknown particles at CERN.
Download and read more information here
“The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013”. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 8 Oct 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2013/>
Physicists outside India
- Galileo – (formulated the basic law of falling bodies, constructed a telescope and discovered four moons revolving around Jupiter)
- Archimedes: Archimedes Principle and theory of floatation, Principle of levers)
- Albert Einstein: Theory of relativity, (Special and General)
- Isaac Newton: Laws of motion, The method of Calculus
- Michael Faraday: Electromagnetic induction, dynamo
Physicists from India
- CV Raman – (studied light scattering and discovered the Raman effect)
- JC Bose – (pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics)
- SN Bose –
(worked out statistical method of handling bosons)
- MN Saha – (best known for his development of the Saha equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.)
- HJ Bhabha (initiated nuclear research programs in India; carried out experiments in cosmic rays; calculated cross section for elastic electron-positron scattering)
- Subramanyan Chandrasekhar:-
(won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics for key discoveries that led to the currently accepted theory on the later evolutionary stages of massive stars. The Chandrasekhar limit is named after him.)