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## How light maintain its speed after refraction?

How light maintain its speed after refraction? -(Naveen Saxena asked)

The speed of light in a medium is constant. When light enters from one medium to another, there is a change in the speed of light and the change is almost instantaneous. The speed of light in a medium depends on the electric and magnetic properties of the medium, more specifically, the electric permitivity and magnetic permeability of the medium.

The speed of light in a medium is given by

$v=\frac{1}{\sqrt{\mu \varepsilon }}$

Wikipedia says

“At the microscale, an electromagnetic wave’s phase speed is slowed in a material because the electric field creates a disturbance in the charges of each atom (primarily the electrons) proportional to the electric susceptibility of the medium. (Similarly, the magnetic field creates a disturbance proportional to the magnetic susceptibility.) As the electromagnetic fields oscillate in the wave, the charges in the material will be “shaken” back and forth at the same frequency. The charges thus radiate their own electromagnetic wave that is at the same frequency, but usually with a phase delay, as the charges may move out of phase with the force driving them . The light wave traveling in the medium is the macroscopic superposition (sum) of all such contributions in the material: The original wave plus the waves radiated by all the moving charges. This wave is typically a wave with the same frequency but shorter wavelength than the original, leading to a slowing of the wave’s phase speed. Most of the radiation from oscillating material charges will modify the incoming wave, changing its velocity. However, some net energy will be radiated in other directions or even at other frequencies .

Depending on the relative phase of the original driving wave and the waves radiated by the charge motion, there are several possibilities:

• If the electrons emit a light wave which is 90° out of phase with the light wave shaking them, it will cause the total light wave to travel more slowly. This is the normal refraction of transparent materials like glass or water, and corresponds to a refractive index which is real and greater than 1.
• If the electrons emit a light wave which is 270° out of phase with the light wave shaking them, it will cause the total light wave to travel more quickly. This is called “anomalous refraction”, and is observed close to absorption lines, with X-rays, and in some microwave systems. It corresponds to a refractive index less than 1. (Even though the phase velocity of light is greater than the speed of light in vacuum c, the signal velocity is not, as discussed above). If the response is sufficiently strong and out-of-phase, the result is negative refractive index discussed below.
• If the electrons emit a light wave which is 180° out of phase with the light wave shaking them, it will destructively interfere with the original light to reduce the total light intensity. This is light absorption in opaque materials and corresponds to an imaginary refractive index.
• If the electrons emit a light wave which is in phase with the light wave shaking them, it will amplify the light wave. This is rare, but occurs in lasers due to stimulated emission. It corresponds to an imaginary index of refraction, with the opposite sign as absorption.

For most materials at visible-light frequencies, the phase is somewhere between 90° and 180°, corresponding to a combination of both refraction and absorption.”

## Particle theory of light and refraction

According to particle theory of light if a light ray bends toward the normal while entering from medium 1 to medium 2 then how the velocity of light in medium 2 is greater than the velocity of light in medium 1 ?

When a medium enters a denser medium from a rarer medium, it bends towards the normal. This is the observation we have in hand and this phenomenon is called refraction.

Sir Isaac Newton tried to explain the phenomenon of refraction using his particle theory. He said that the particles of the denser medium attracts the particles with stronger force towards it which makes it bend towards the normal.

If there is such a force of attraction, then the speed of light would increase inside a denser medium. When the velocity of light in different media was determined by Foucault and other scientists, it was found that the velocity of light in denser medium is less than that in a rarer medium. So, Newton’s explanation of refraction was proved wrong.

## Wave travelling from one medium to another

“when a wave enters from air to water, its wavelength changes but

frequency remains unchanged. why”

Velocity of a wave = frequency x time period

V = ν λ

When a wave travels from one medium to another, its velocity changes and so also is its wavelength, but frequency; which is the number of vibrations produced per second is independent of the medium, remains constant.

However, their is a phenomenon called Doppler Effect where the apparent frequency (observed frequency) is different from actual frequency and is caused by the relative movement between the source and observer (listener)

## Effect of Dielectric on Coulomb force

How does the force between two charges change when a dielectric medium is kept in between?
The introduction of a dielectric medium between two charges will decrease the force between them.

## Transverse nature of light

it is said that in tranverse waves the particles move perpendicular to the direction of motion of wave.
it is also said that light is a transverse wave.
but how can the particles in light move at all, as light doesn’t require a medium to travel?

Light is an electromagnetic wave, energy propagated as a combination of electric and magnetic fields varying with time in mutually perpendicular directions, also perpendicular to the direction of propagation. This makes light a transverse wave.

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