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Yes! Neutrino detectors can be used to detect nuclear weapons. (Ref: The above story is based on materials provided by Virginia Tech. )
Neutrinos are produced by the decay of radioactive elements, and nuclear reactors produce large amounts of neutrinos that cannot be shielded or disguised, which could help regulatory agencies monitor plutonium production.
Measuring neutrino emissions allows scientists to infer the plutonium content of a reactor from outside the building, according to a letter in Physical Review Letters written by Patrick Huber, an associate professor of physics and a member of the Center for Neutrino Physics at Virginia Tech, with Thomas Shea, a 20-year veteran of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and graduate students Eric Christensen of Westminster, Maryland, a doctoral student in physics, and Patrick Jaffke of Arlington, Virginia, a doctoral student in physics and a master’s student in nuclear engineering.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 was awarded jointly to Englert and Peter W. Higgs “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs are jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 for the theory of how particles acquire mass. In 1964, they proposed the theory independently of each other (Englert together with his now deceased colleague Robert Brout). In 2012, their ideas were confirmed by the discovery of a so called Higgs particle at the CERN laboratory outside Geneva in Switzerland..
The awarded theory is a central part of the Standard Model of particle physics that describes how the world is constructed. According to the Standard Model, everything, from flowers and people to stars and planets, consists of just a few building blocks: matter particles. These particles are governed by forces mediated by force particles that make sure everything works as it should.
The entire Standard Model also rests on the existence of a special kind of particle: the Higgs particle. This particle originates from an invisible field that fills up all space. Even when the universe seems empty this field is there. Without it, we would not exist, because it is from contact with the field that particles acquire mass. The theory proposed by Englert and Higgs describes this process.
On 4 July 2012, at the CERN laboratory for particle physics, the theory was confirmed by the discovery of a Higgs particle. CERN’s particle collider, LHC (Large Hadron Collider), is probably the largest and the most complex machine ever constructed by humans. Two research groups of some 3,000 scientists each, ATLAS and CMS, managed to extract the Higgs particle from billions of particle collisions in the LHC.
Even though it is a great achievement to have found the Higgs particle — the missing piece in the Standard Model puzzle — the Standard Model is not the final piece in the cosmic puzzle. One of the reasons for this is that the Standard Model treats certain particles, neutrinos, as being virtually massless, whereas recent studies show that they actually do have mass. Another reason is that the model only describes visible matter, which only accounts for one fifth of all matter in the cosmos. To find the mysterious dark matter is one of the objectives as scientists continue the chase of unknown particles at CERN.
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“The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013”. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 8 Oct 2013. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2013/>
Could you please explain in a simple way how strong force inside baryons really works? I mean, gluons are messengers of strong force but they are also sensitive to strong force(they are charged) so they are producing other gluons as messengers of their own chrage. What mechanism prevents to grow the number of gluons in lets say proton to go to infinity? They are annihilating with each other so statistically there is still finite number of gluons or is there another mechanism? Thank you!
Asked Peter Stiller
How do the prortons fly almost at a speed of light in LHC at CERn.What gives them so much acceleration?please clarify…If i want to study Particle physics in future what qualifications I would need.I want to be a scientist at CERN?Please clarify.
Posted by Nabasindhu DAs
Response from AskPhysics Team
Hi! First of all we would like to congratulate you on your wish and dream to join CERN.
The acceleration of protons are done by huge particle accelerators.
The Currently active machines are:
Two linear accelerators generate low energy particles. Linac2 accelerates protons to 50 MeV for injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), and Linac3 provides heavy ions at 4.2 MeV/u for injection into the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR).
The Proton Synchrotron Booster increases the energy of particles generated by the proton linear accelerator before they are transferred to the other accelerators.
The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerates the ions from the ion linear accelerator, before transferring them to the Proton Synchrotron (PS). This accelerator was commissioned in 2005, after having been reconfigured from the previous Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR).
The 28 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS), built in 1959 and still operating as a feeder to the more powerful SPS.
The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), a circular accelerator with a diameter of 2 kilometres built in a tunnel, which started operation in 1976. It was designed to deliver an energy of 300 GeV and was gradually upgraded to 450 GeV. As well as having its own beamlines for fixed-target experiments (currently COMPASS and NA62), it has been operated as a proton–antiproton collider (the SppS collider), and for accelerating high energy electrons and positrons which were injected into the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP). Since 2008, it has been used to inject protons and heavy ions into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE), which is used to study unstable nuclei. The radioactive ions are produced by the impact of protons at an energy of 1.0–1.4 GeV from the Proton Synchrotron Booster. It was first commissioned in 1967 and was rebuilt with major upgrades in 1974 and 1992.
REX-ISOLDE increases the charge states of ions coming from the ISOLDE targets, and accelerates them to a maximum energy of 3 MeV/u.
The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), which reduces the velocity of antiprotons to about 10% of the speed of light for research into antimatter.
The Compact Linear Collider Test Facility, which studies feasibility issues for the future normal conducting linear collider project.
The LHC is the world’s largest and highest-energy particle accelerator
The collider is contained in a circular tunnel, with a circumference of 27 kilometres (17 mi), at a depth ranging from 50 to 175 metres (160 to 574 ft) underground.
Prior to being injected into the main accelerator, the particles are prepared by a series of systems that successively increase their energy. The first system is the linear particle accelerator LINAC 2 generating 50-MeV protons, which feeds the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). There the protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and injected into the Proton Synchrotron (PS), where they are accelerated to 26 GeV. Finally the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is used to further increase their energy to 450 GeV before they are at last injected (over a period of 20 minutes) into the main ring. Here the proton bunches are accumulated, accelerated (over a period of 20 minutes) to their peak 7-TeV energy, and finally circulated for 10 to 24 hours while collisions occur at the four intersection points.
More technical details can be had at the following links, including the ways to join CERN
Is it necessary that particles should be present for the presence of a any field ?for example in higgs field, higgs boson are the particles which are responsible for it.
The mass of a proton is 1840 times that of an electron. it is accelerated to a potential difference of 1kV. find the amount of work done in process. (Ujjwal Sharma asked)
The work done = the KE acquired = eV=1.6 x 10-19 x 1000 = 1.6 x 10-16 J
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