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Work Energy Problem

A 2kg hammer with a speed of 40m/s strikes a 100g nail driving it into a wooden block. If there is no dissipation of energy in this process and the frictional force applied by the wooden block is 8000N, how deep would be nail penetrate into the block?

Asked Jaisy

Principle of Working of Microwave Oven

Manisha Chowdhury asked:

Why is it called a microwave oven?
Who invented it?
What is the principle of its working?


A microwave oven is used to cook (or heat) food with the help of microwaves produced by magnetron – the device producing microwaves in the oven. Microwave ovens are so quick and efficient because they channel heat energy directly to the molecules (tiny particles) inside food.

Who invented Microwave Oven?

Percy-spencerPercy Spencer is generally credited with inventing the modern microwave oven after World War II from radar technology developed during the war. Named the “Radarange”, it was first sold in 1946. Raytheon later licensed its patents for a home-use microwave oven that was first introduced by Tappan in 1955, but these units were still too large and expensive for general home use. The countertop microwave oven was first introduced in 1967 by the Amana Corporation, and their use has spread into commercial and residential kitchens around the world.

Working of microwave oven

microwave ovenA microwave oven, commonly referred to as a microwave, is a kitchen appliance that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave spectrum. This induces polar molecules in the food to rotate and produce thermal energy in a process known as dielectric heating. Microwave ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently because excitation is fairly uniform in the outer25–38 mm (1–1.5 inches) of a homogenous (high water content) food item; food is more evenly heated throughout (except in heterogeneous, dense objects) than generally occurs in other cooking techniques.

Magnetron2A microwave oven heats food by passing microwave radiation through it. Microwaves are a form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation with a frequency higher than ordinary radio waves but lower than infrared light. Microwave ovens use frequencies in one of the ISM (industrial, scientific, medical) bands, which are reserved for this use, so they don’t interfere with other vital radio services. Consumer ovens usually use 2.45 gigahertz (GHz)—a wavelength of 12.2 centimetres (4.80 in)—while large industrial/commercial ovens often use 915 megahertz (MHz)—32.8 centimetres (12.9 in). Water, fat, and other substances in the food absorb energy from the microwaves in a process called dielectric heating. Many molecules (such as those of water) are electric dipoles, meaning that they have a partial positive charge at one end and a partial negative charge at the other, and therefore rotate as they try to align themselves with the alternating electric field of the microwaves. Rotating molecules hit other molecules and put them into motion, thus dispersing energy. This energy, when dispersed as molecular vibration in solids and liquids (i.e. as both potential energy and kinetic energy of atoms), is heat.

For more details refer to :



Charan asked: Suppose that you are a person 1 standing on a planet.You could see a person 2 moving in a space craft.2 has a mirror(on the surface of planet) exactly at is down which is moving exactly with the same speed that space craft is moving(and also,the line of translatory motion of both the craft and mirror are parallel to each other).If 2 has shot a beam of light from the bottom of space ship,as the mirror is moving exactly with the space craft;for 2,the path of light is straight line and gets reflected back along the same path in time t.If you are observing the whole thing from the surface of planet,for you,the path of light would obviously be ‘V’ shaped(let the time taken be t’).As the ‘V’ shaped path is longer than straight path and speed of light is same for observers,the time measured by 2 is obviously not the same as you measure.If you are considered to be reference frame,will the clock of 2 appear to be moving slower than yours?

Thoughts on Higgs Boson

When it is not contested scientifically that change is a continuous phenomenon,how is that Higgs boson, if found,can be considered as the ultimate building block of matter.

Sure, it may prove a mathematically arrived conclusion… yet the contradiction remains.
An ever changing, at the same time, ever stable (because it is the ultimate one) is the contradiction.
One may find changing or divisible particle only…

(Posted by K.C. Muralidhar)

Please post your thoughts and reactions as comments to this post

Gravity at different places on earth

The centre of earth is equator and if equator is the centre of earth and as we know the gravity is maximum at centre of the earth then why the gravity is less there?

Asked Aishwarya


(Evidently, the question is posted out of some misconception or confusion)

Centre of earth means the centre INSIDE THE EARTH, and there the value of g is zero.

At the equator, the distance from the centre is maximum and therefore g is the minimum. Further, the effect of rotation is maximum at the equator as the distance of any particle on the surface is farthest from the axis of rotation at the equator and any object at the equator requires maximum centripetal force which is derived from the gravitational force of earth. Thus in both ways, g is minimum at the equator.

Resistance and Resistivity

Simran Asked

“Two wires A and B of equal lengths,different cross-sectional areas and made of same metal a)name the property which is same for both the wires. b)name the property which is different for both the wires”


Since both the wires are of same metal, the resistivity will be same for both whereas since the dimensions (Area of cross section here) are different, the resistance will be different

Amateur Research

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  • Post Edited: Work done and Kinetic/Potential Energy https://t.co/53bHeenlkr
    about 2 days ago
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