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How graphs are made for different processes like isothermal, isobaric, isochoric & adiabatic?

How graphs are made for different processes like isothermal, isobaric, isochoric & adiabatic?


Hope you are talking about the PV diagrams.

The difference between isothermal and adiabatic curve is that the adiabatic curve is more steeper than an the isothermal curve.

In isobaric, P remains constant and hence will give a horizontal line (if P is takn along Y axis)

Isochoric, should give a vertical line if V is taken along X axis

Difference between electric field and magnetic field?

What is difference between electric field and  magnetic field?

Hope that the following link will help you find the answer.

magnetic_detection-iron_filings.jpg (376×312)Difference between Electric and Magnetic fields




454px-Electric_dipole_field_lines.svg.png (454×436)



Mass of a charged particle !

Monu asks:

“Can mass of a charged particle be infinite and if
yes explain how and when?????”


Answer: Please note that charge is independent of speed but mass depends on speed. So of a body of any mass is moving with gradually increasing speeds, its mass goes on increasing as per the theory of relativity (The relativistic mass ) but the charge remains the same.

Therefore, the mass of a charged particle can be infinity.

(If any of the visitors has got a different opinion, please post them as comments to this post.)

Difference between dot product and cross product

Shashi Kant asked:

“What is difference between cross product and dot product?”



If the product of two vectors is a scalar quantity it is called scalar product or dot product.

If the product of two vectors is a vector quantity it is called vector product or cross product.

Is ohm’s law universally applicable?

Amritha asked:

“Is ohm’s law universally applicable?”


The Ohm’s law states that “The current through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied across its ends provided the physical conditions such as temperature remains the same

From the statement it is implied that it is not a universal law, and is applicable to conductors. It is not valid for semiconductors and electronic devices.

The substances which obey Ohm’s law are said to be ohmic and those which do not obey Ohm’s law are “Non Ohmic

A Numerical from electrostatics

TIM posted:

Treat the sphere as a solid non-conducting sphere of radius R=6000 km with uniform charge Q=4000 C. The sphere has a conducting spherical shell. The shell has inner radius r1= 6005 km, outer radius r2= 6010 km and zero net charge. Assume gravity is negligible for all parts of this problem.
a) How much charge is on the inner and outer surfaces of the shell layer?
b) What is the potential difference deltaV between the base of the shell and the sphere?

Power factor in AC circuits

Dany Asked:

“what is meant by power factor?”


In AC circuits, Power factor is defined as the ratio of true power to apparent power.

Power Factor =\frac{True Power}{Apparent Power}

If φ is the phase difference between E and I, then

True Power = EvIv cos φ and the Apparent Power is EvIv


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