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## Flow of electrons and direction of current

We say current flow opposite to electron flow but what is current?

Electric current is defined as the rate of flow of charges, ie; the amount of charges flowing in 1 sec.

The direction of current was conventionally defined as the direction of flow of positive charges.
In a metallic conductor, the negatively charged particles (electrons) are moving and therefore the direction of current is taken as opposite to the direction of flow of electrons.
Hope the concept is clear.

## WORKING OF A TRANSFORMER

Sir,im not understanding how transformer works?while current is going from one station to other we keep high voltage and very less current to decrease power loss but current is proportional to voltage how can u make low current using high voltage?

A transformer works on the principle of mutual induction. [mutual induction is the phenomenon of production of emf in a coil due to the change in the strength of current through a neighbouring coil]

Transformers are of two kinds – step up and step down.

A step up transformer converts low voltage (high current) ac to high voltage (low current) ac.

In the case of an ideal transformer, there is no power loss.

In that case,

input power = out power

Vin Iin = Vout Iout

[This equation shows how an increase in output voltage results in a decrease in out put current]

Long distance transmission of ac requires low  current as the heat dissipated during transmission is proportional to the square of current.

If we use a step-up transformer , it steps up the voltage and consequently steps down the current so that VI is the same.

In the case of real transformers, there are some power losses within the transformner, however, an increase in output current through mutual induction will essentially result in a decrease in output current.

Hope that the matter is clear now. In case of doubt, please post them as comments to this post.

## Force on Current carrying conductor

“Thin and flexible wire is kept on a table in the form of a rectangle and a strong current is send through it. How will be the shape of the wire as a result?”

Answer: The parallel sides are carrying currents in opposite directions and therefore there will be repulsion between them. So, the rectangular coil will try to expand and tend to become circular.

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## Relativity, Black Hole and some doubts

In the model of the big bang I would like to pose the following question. My understanding is that

1. The expansion of the universe is accelerating and

2. The radiation or shock wave to keep the analogy going is something we can measure.

My question is this. While we can rewind the clock to a single moment when the universe was infinity dense how do we know that this was a moment at all. Let me elaborate. As the universe expands could time or space time not also expand and if so than when the big bang occurred is something we cannot measure merely by rewinding the clock. If we are experiencing time at a given rate when the universe is at its current size would time not be being effected by the expansion also and if so would that mean the there was simply no start and no end to the universe? Perhaps the big bang is not as accurate as we may wish and perhaps it is our ability to comprehend that is limited. I propose there is no start or end to the universe it has always and will always be as it, and we, cannot exist without time and as such these two objects or things form a symbiotic relationship with each other. While the universe expands so does time and its effects are reduced in line with its expansion. Does this sound plausible and if not why?

## Potential Difference

“What is meant by potential difference?”

“Potential Difference between two points is the difference in Potential between the two points and is equal to the work done per unit charge ion carrying a positive test charge from one point to another against the electric field and without any acceleration”

## A Question from Current Electricity

The resistances of 2 bulbs are in the ratio 1:2.if they are joined in series,find the ratio of the energy consumed by the 2 bulbs?

When connected in series, the same current flows through each of the resistors. Therefore, the energy dissipated is directly proportional to their resistances. That is, the ratio of energy dissipated will nbe same as the ratio of resistances. (1:2)

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