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Why electrons cannot be accelerated using a cyclotron?

In a cyclotron, the most important condition is that of the cyclotron frequency. The frequency of the square wave oscillator connected to the dees of the cyclotron must match the frequency of revolution of the charged particle being accelerated.

For ordinary ions, once the  frequency is set there is no need to change or adjust the frequency.

The equation for cyclotron frequency is

As it is clear from the above equation that the cyclotron frequency is inversely proportional to mass of the ion. The frequency of revolution is apparently constant for ordinary ions.

If an electron is accelerated in a cyclotron, it quickly picks up high-speed comparable to the speed of light because of its light mass. The speed comparable to the speed of light is called relativistic speed. At relativistic speeds, mass is not constant but varies according to the relation.


As per the equation as speed increases, relativistic mass increases. This will change the frequency of revolution and the revolution will go out of phase. The acceleration will stop.

Questions from Properties of gases

Senarita asked:

we know that temperature has a properties to make some thing bigger in volume.we say that gas has no particular volume or shape.where we place a gas it takes the shape of that container.my question is- a gas of mass ‘m’ has a particular number of atoms or molecules.if the gas is not getting any temperature then how it is occupying all the volume of a bigger container.i mean how the inner space of two atoms or two molecules of that particular gas is increasing when i am transferring it to a bigger container.(say,every condition is constant.nothing is changed.)please answer me.

“can you give me some name of sites where i can get explanations on hydrostatics or the topics of physics.i am now in class 11.”

Master will be answering the question shortly. The visitors are requested to respond

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