A nerve signal is transmitted through a neuron when an excess Na+ inos suddenly enters the axon, along cylindrical part of the neuron. Axons are approximately 10.0 micrometer in diameter, and measurements show that about 5.6×10^11 Na+ ions per meter ( each of charge e+)enter during this process. Although the axon is a long cylinder, the charge doesn’t all enter everywhere at the same time. A plausible model would be a series if point charges moving along the axon. Let us look at a 0.10-mm length of the axon and model it as a point of charge.

(a) If the charge that enters each meter of the axon gets distributed uniformly along it, how many coulombs of charge enter a 0.10-mm length of the axon?
(b) What electric field ( magnitude and direction) does the sudden influx of charge produce at the surface of the body if the axon is 5.00 cm below the skin?
(c) Certain sharks can respond to electric fields as weak as 1.0 microN/C. how far from this segment of axon could a shark be and still detect its electric field?

TWIN PARADOX is a paradoxical situation coming in while explaining the theory of relativity. “Time dilation” is one of the important consequences of relativity. It says that if a body is moving with relativistic speeds, time will dialate for it. That is, a duration of 1 second for him will be more than that for a person at rest or moving at ordinary speeds.

The relativistic time is given by the equation,

So, if we imagine twin brothers, one at rest at earth and other going on a relativistic interstellar trip (certainly he has to go out of solar system as the velocity of light is very much more than escape velocity of solar system, and further, he will reach the sun in just 8 minutes if traveled with the speed of light)

Let us take that his speed is 0.9 times the speed of light in vacuum. Then 1 second for him is equal to 27 s (approximately) for his brother on earth. So, if he returns after one year of space programme, he will be older by 1 year, but his brother who was at home will be older by 27 years or more; if alive.

This is the TWIN Paradox.

You are welcome to think of the possibilities of a relativistic travel and the related issues here.