## Some important conversions and physical constants

Some Important Conversions

• 1 bar = 106 dyne/cm2 = 105 Nm-2 = 105 pascal
• 76 cm of Hg = 1.013×106 dyne/cm2 = 1.013×105 pascal = 1.013 bar.
• 1 toricelli or torr = 1 mm of Hg = 1.333×103 dyne/cm2 = 1.333 millibar.
• 1 kmph = 5/18 ms-1
• 1 dyne = 10-5 N,
• 1 H.P = 746 watt
• 1 kilowatt hour = 36×105 J
• 1 kgwt = g newton
• 1 calorie = 4.2 joule
• 1 electron volt = 1.602×10-19 joule
• 1 erg = 10-7 joule

Some Important Physical Constants

• Velocity of light in vacuum (c) = 3 × 108 ms-1
• Velocity of sound in air at STP = 331 ms-1
• Acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81 ms-2
• Avogadro number (N) = 6.023 × 1023/mol
• Density of water at 4oC = 1000 kgm-3 or 1 g/cc.
• Absolute zero = -273.15oC or 0 K
• Atomic mass unit = 1.66 × 10-27 kg
• Quantum of charge (e) = 1.602 × 10-19 C
• Stefan’s constant = 5.67 × 10–8 W/m2/K4
• Boltzmann’s constant (K) = 1.381 × 10-23 JK-1
• One atmosphere = 76 cm Hg = 1.013 × 105 Pa
• Mechanical equivalent of heat (J) = 4.186 J/cal
• Planck’s constant (h) = 6.626 × 10-34 Js
• Universal gas constant (R) = 8.314 J/mol–K
• Permeability of free space () = 4π × 10-7 Hm-1
• Permittivity of free space () = 8.854 × 10-12 Fm-1
• The density of air at S.T.P. = 1.293 kg m-3
• Universal gravitational constant = 6.67 × 10-11 Nm2kg-2

## Spirituality and education :- mansi bhavsar

Spirituality and education
Article by:- Mansi Bhavsar

Spirituality and education must go hand in hand. Recently I read ‘ignited minds’ by Abdul Kalam in
which he had discussed certain ways in which we could develop our nation. There his maximum
focus was on Indian education. But the thing which interested me the most was the topic spirituality
and education. In the book he had clearly mentioned that along with science it is really important for
our youth to have self realisation the book was written in 2002 but still after so many years of its
publication and thousands of readers the idea of implementing spirituality in school education is still
neglected. The sole purpose of education is that students must have self realisation they must
understand themselves and the thing is they must have a clear mindset but as we all know that in
today’s education system nothing is more important than grades. Yes of course we all keep saying
that personality development is important ,being aware about yourself is significant but the lessons
,the proper training which must be given to children from elementary level is nowhere. How could we
expect that school teachers can give students lessons regarding personality development and
consciousness because the teachers themselves are not aware about it. First of all I would like to
discuss my experience regarding spirituality and how I implement it in my academic career.
My Experience
To begin with, the very first time when I came to know about spirituality was when I was in grade 6th.
Once I attended a seminar hosted by personality development coach Dr. Dattatray Ghode in which he
had discussed various ways and ideas through which we could live a successful life. It was a 3 day
course in which the maximum part was all about growing your business but the thing was being too
young I understood nothing but 30% of that course was regarding spirituality in which he discussed a
few interesting practices like Astral travel, third eye and telepathy. Being an 11 year old girl the fact
that you could read others mind and of course can see with eyes closed just with the help of
meditation interested me a lot. But the thing was these topics were not covered in detail all he said
was just that these things exist but the proper way of doing this was not explained. Frankly speaking
in my schooling days I was a girl who was far away from gadgets and was a bit shy type and so I was
became a bit aware about social media and the internet. Uptill class ninth I kept re-reading the booklet
which was provided to us during the course, all it covered was only the definition about these
practices and the short method on how we could practice it. But still there was a hip of questions in
front of me but there was no one to answer or to whom I could talk or discuss with. In 2019 I started
reading articles and books which have given me enough Idea regarding this topic. The reason why I
found that telling this story is important is because there are only 5-10% people who are aware about
these practices. And if we plan to combine spirituality and education the first step must be making
everyone aware about it and the next thing is teachers must be properly trained. I got the knowledge
about spirituality just because I read books but the thing is not everyone is interested in reading books
so it is important that someone must be there who should at least give an idea to the students that yes
these things exist.
Now one thing I need to make clear is that by spirituality I do not mean that students must be taught
about Astral projection and third eye. All I need to say is that they must be given proper guidance
through which they can develop their personality and train their mind through simple practices of
meditation. Now I would like to discuss what techniques I use for learning and its connection with
spirituality.

What I do

As I’m a science student , I know that many students face difficulty in learning physics not only
physics but there are many others but here let’s consider physics as the toughest subject. According
to me anything which you are not able to relate you find it difficult, but if you are given a relation of it
with real life then of course learning will be fun. Recently I completed the chapter atoms from my
syllabus and I would like to tell you how I related it. The theory was all about the composition of an
atom, what binds it together and the way it revolves. The very first thing which came into my mind was
our solar system, the sun acting as a nucleus with the highest level of energy, the planets as electrons
which are revolving around the sun in an orbit. Similarly at microscopic level the electrons revolve
around the nucleus. The next thing which came into my mind was that it is possible that every other
thing has a similar setup like if we consider earth as an atom then it will be no wrong to say that the
gravitational force of Earth acts as a nucleus and we humans are the electrons in it. If we consider
humans as an atom then I think the soul can be called the powerhouse of the whole human body and
rest is the electron plus free spaces in it. The other thing which came into my mind while reading this
chapter was the way an electron gets excited and reaches the next level i.e when transition occurs
similarly during meditation our consciousness is shifted to the next level by gaining energy.
I have hundreds of examples I can give when the topic is about the relation of spirituality with studies.
Similarly as I do other students too can use their imagination to make the subject easier but before
they start doing so they must know the reason why they are studying the subject. If you look at the
text books then they are full of derivations and definitions but I think that before starting the theoretical
things students must know the reason they are studying that particular subject and also where they
could apply it.
But before telling them the importance of that subject they must know why they are being educated.
The youngsters mind must be cleared that why are they being educated, the reason behind it and
what will be their contribution. And the first step towards this is of course training the teachers.

Training the teachers

Now the topic is regarding teachers in India so firstly I have to highlight this point that I feel really sorry
to say that in India teaching field is one of the underrated field yes of course there are many
enrollment in this sector but the truth is that in India almost 70% of students opt to become a
professor or teacher just because they are not able to find any other way ,yes this is true because
only 30% of students are genuinely interested in teaching and only 5% of them are aware about what
education actually demands and how it must be brought on a proper way. It is obvious that the
education field, especially the job of school teachers, is underrated because the wages are really very
low. Government sector teachers are paid enough but if we talk about private schools the wages are
very less. Whereas if we talk about foreign countries like America and Japan then professorship is the
most respected and reputed job one can have. But whatever it is now we need to focus on how the
students who are being trained to become a teacher can contribute in combining education and
spirituality. Firstly we need to include these things in the curriculum. Of course there are subjects like
child psychology and the way you must council children. But we all know that nothing is done except
rushing with the syllabus and giving lectures about materialistic things. Schools do have psychologists
but only one person is not enough each and every teacher must have the skill so that they may relate
their own subject to real life. Along with this students must know the real meaning of success, they
must be thought about how to handle failures, teachers are experienced and therefore they must
share their own experiences with students it is obvious that everyone must enjoy the life’s journey but
as teachers have gone through the phase that is of teenage they must help children to differentiate
between what is right and what is wrong. Also another important point which needs to be highlighted
is that equal attention must be paid to every student.
I know a girl who was bullied in school just because of her looks, personality ,her way of speaking and
this unnecessary criticism had made her depressed. The fact is not that she was bullied but the thing
which hurted me the most was that the teachers never bothered to know what’s wrong. They never
even tried to figure out what is disturbing her or they never tried to make other students understand
that this was not the way to behave. The job of a teacher is not only to teach the students but a
teacher must also be a guide to train every student to be a good person. But the sad reality is that in
every institute there are only two to three teachers who are actually dedicated towards their work and
deserve to be called as true leaders.

Other benefits of being spiritually conscious:-

Spirituality and self consciousness, this is a vast topic with many levels ,different practices and
methods. Even if you spend hundreds of years gaining knowledge or researching spirituality then
every time you will get something new you will explore new things. This topic is limitless. But , even if
one reaches the first level of spiritual consciousness then that person will be at peace for life time.
The concept of spirituality revolves around ourselves; it is not about discovering the outer world but it
is more about knowing who you are, what’s inside you. Being spiritual helps you become more aware
about yourself and as you go deeper into the level of consciousness you start realising that nothing is
different, do the bodies the physical bodies are different but the soul is one. And the most important
thing which human beings need now is peace and brotherhood among themselves. And if our young
has high self esteem, inner peace and is optimistic. School children are taught these practices from
elementary level then it is obvious that they will be able to focus more and the best thing is that they
will at least have an idea about what life is. Their focus will be more on satisfaction than on money.
They’ll try to become a good person before being successful. And if we talk about teenagers then
getting addicted to something or making wrong decisions in life is a huge problem nowadays because
of the unnecessary contents on social media the young minds are getting corrupted and it is really
important that these youngsters must have a guide who may show them the right path. It is really very
essential that teachers must discuss these topics like addiction ,bad habits and of course the
relationships nowadays teenagers have. It’s OK to have fun in life but everything has a time and
students must be aware that they must differentiate between what is good and what is not.

Depression and how spirituality helps to fight with it :-

Sucide cases are increasing day by day. And most of the victims are teenagers. Spirituality of course
helps you have higher self esteem and it’s a way you could have self realisation but at the same time
it increases your willpower. Most of the sucide are committed because of loneliness but you know by
practicing meditation you reach a level where you you realise that you are enough for yourself. Even
you don’t have any greed for something. All you do is just work for humanity and dedicate yourself to
the universe. We see that people attend many courses such as personality development and people
visit psychologists to recover from anxiety and depression but if children are able to handle their own
stress and become quite matured then of course the suicidal rates will decrease.

Winding up the topic I would like to to mention the lines written by APJ Abdul Kalam in his book:-
"Spirituality must be integrated with education. Each one of us must become aware of our higher self.
We are links of a great past to a grand future. We must Ignite inner energy and let it guide our lives.
This will bring prosperity and bless to our nation."

## Spirituality and education

Untitled document.pdf

## Units and Dimensional Formulas of Physical Quantities

 Physical quantity Unit Dimensional formula Acceleration or acceleration due to gravity ms–2 LT–2 Angle (arc/radius) rad MoLoTo Angular displacement rad MoloTo Angular frequency (angular displacement/time) rads–1 T–1 Angular impulse (torque x time) Nms ML2T–1 Angular momentum (Iω) kgm2s–1 ML2T–1 Angular velocity (angle/time) rads–1 T–1 Area (length x breadth) m2 L2 Boltzmann’s constant JK–1 ML2T–2θ–1 Bulk modulus (ΔP.VΔVΔP.ΔVV.) Nm–2, Pa M1L–1T–2 Calorific value Jkg–1 L2T–2 Coefficient of linear or areal or volume expansion oC–1 or K–1 θ–1 Coefficient of surface tension (force/length) Nm–1 or Jm–2 MT–2 Coefficient of thermal conductivity Wm–1K–1 MLT–3θ–1 Coefficient of viscosity (F =ηAdv/dx) poise ML–1T–1 Compressibility (1/bulk modulus) Pa–1, m2N–2 M–1LT2 Density (mass / volume) kgm–3 ML–3 Displacement, wavelength, focal length m L Electric capacitance (charge/potential) CV–1, farad M–1L–2T4I2 Electric conductance (1/resistance) Ohm–1 or mho or siemen M–1L–2T3I2 Electric conductivity (1/resistivity) siemen/metre or Sm–1 M–1L–3T3I2 Electric charge or quantity of electric charge (current x time) coulomb IT Electric current ampere I Electric dipole moment (charge x distance) Cm LTI Electric field strength or Intensity of electric field (force/charge) NC–1, Vm–1 MLT–3I–1 Electric resistance (potential differencecurrentcurrentpotential difference) ohm ML2T–3I–2 Emf (or) electric potential (work/charge) volt ML2T–3I–1 Energy (capacity to do work) joule ML2T–2 Energy density (energyvolumevolumeenergy) Jm–3 ML–1T–2 Entropy (ΔS=ΔQ/TΔS=ΔQ/T) Jθ–1 ML2T–2θ–1 Force (mass x acceleration) newton (N) MLT–2 Force constant or spring constant (force/extension) Nm–1 MT–2 Frequency (1/period) Hz T–1 Gravitational potential (work/mass) Jkg–1 L2T–2 Heat (energy) J or calorie ML2T–2 Illumination (Illuminance) lux (lumen/metre2) MT–3 Impulse (force x time) Ns or kgms–1 MLT–1 Inductance (L) (energy =12LI221LI2) or coefficient of self-induction henry (H) ML2T–2I–2 Intensity of gravitational field (F/m) Nkg–1 L1T–2 Intensity of magnetization (I) Am–1 L–1I Joule’s constant or mechanical equivalent of heat Jcal–1 MoLoTo Latent heat (Q = mL) Jkg–1 MoL2T–2 Linear density (mass per unit length) kgm–1 ML–1 Luminous flux lumen or (Js–1) ML2T–3 Magnetic dipole moment Am2 L2I Magnetic flux (magnetic induction x area) weber (Wb) ML2T–2I–1 Magnetic induction (F = Bil) NI–1m–1 or T MT–2I–1 Magnetic pole strength (unit: ampere–meter) Am LI Modulus of elasticity (stress/strain) Nm–2, Pa ML–1T–2 Moment of inertia (mass x radius2) kgm2 ML2 Momentum (mass x velocity) kgms–1 MLT–1 Permeability of free space (μo=4πFd2m1m2μo=m1m24πFd2) Hm–1 or NA–2 MLT–2I–2 Permittivity of free space (εo=Q1Q24πFd2εo=4πFd2Q1Q2.) Fm–1 or C2N–1m–2 M–1L–3T4I2 Planck’s constant (energy/frequency) Js ML2T–1 Poisson’s ratio (lateral strain/longitudinal strain) –– MoLoTo Power (work/time) Js–1 or watt (W) ML2T–3 Pressure (force/area) Nm–2 or Pa ML–1T–2 Pressure coefficient or volume coefficient oC–1 or θ–1 θ–1 Pressure head m MoLTo Radioactivity disintegrations per second MoLoT–1 Ratio of specific heats –– MoLoTo Refractive index –– MoLoTo Resistivity or specific resistance ΩΩ–m ML3T–3I–2 Specific conductance or conductivity (1/specific resistance) siemen/metre or Sm–1 M–1L–3T3I2 Specific entropy (1/entropy) KJ–1 M–1L–2T2θ Specific gravity (density of the substance/density of water) –– MoLoTo Specific heat (Q = mst) Jkg–1θ–1 MoL2T–2θ–1 Specific volume (1/density) m3kg–1 M–1L3 Speed (distance/time) ms–1 LT–1 Stefan’s constant(heat energyarea x time x temperature4)(area x time x temperature4heat energy). Wm–2θ–4 MLoT–3θ–4 Strain (change in dimension/original dimension) –– MoLoTo Stress (restoring force/area) Nm–2 or Pa ML–1T–2 Surface energy density (energy/area) Jm–2 MT–2 Temperature oC or θ MoLoToθ Temperature gradient (change in temperaturedistancedistancechange in temperature) oCm–1 or θm–1 MoL–1Toθ Thermal capacity (mass x specific heat) Jθ–1 ML2T–2θ–1 Time period second T Torque or moment of force (force x distance) Nm ML2T–2 Universal gas constant (work/temperature) Jmol–1θ–1 ML2T–2θ–1 Universal gravitational constant (F = G. m1m2d2d2m1m2) Nm2kg–2 M–1L3T–2 Velocity (displacement/time) ms–1 LT–1 Velocity gradient (dv/dx) s–1 T–1 Volume (length x breadth x height) m3 L3 Water equivalent kg MLoTo Work (force x displacement) J ML2T–2

## Elasticity in everyday life

Elasticity has a wide range of use in everyday life.

1.RUBBER BAND

A classic example of elastic deformation, and indeed, of highly elastic behavior, is a rubber band: it can be deformed to a length many times its original size, but upon release, it returns to its original shape.

2.METALS AND ELASTICITY

Metals, in fact, exhibit a number of interesting characteristics with regard to elasticity. With the notable exception of cast iron, metals tend to possess a high degree of ductility, or the ability to be deformed beyond their elastic limits without experiencing rupture. Up to a certain point, the ratio of tension to elongation for metals is high: in other words, a high amou

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