Projectile motion – Problem

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Hi. Can you help me please? I have trouble with this question:

An arrow is aimed horizontally, directly at a target 17.2 meters away. when the arrow is released, it lands 0.08 meters below the target point. How long was the arrow in the air? How fast was the arrow moving when it left the bow?Nadia asked


Consider vertical motion. Take y =1/2 gr^2=0.08m and find t

Considering horizontal motion, find Vx from the relation x =Vx t

Find Vy =gt

Find V =√{Vx^2+Vy^2}

String Theory

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Can string theory be demonstrated? Is my understanding of the theory incorrect? I’d like to demonstrate the theory by using the strings of a guitar, so is string theory applicable, or should I focus more on pitch and harmonics?

Asked Brandon Dickey

Distance of closest approach

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distance of closest approach

Estimating the size of nucleus

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How do you figure out the size of a nucleus?  Especially, a Helium-4 nucleus.

Do you have any good charts online I could use?

I would appreciate it if you would write back.



An estimate of the size of nucleus (nuclear radius) can be made from the empirical formula  where R0 is an empirical constant whose value is 1.25 x 10-15m, A is the mass number.

The following document may be helpful to you for further information

Download (PDF, 1.04MB)

Want to pass the CBSE Physics Exam? Here’s how !

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Did you get very low marks in Physics and finding it too difficult to get pass marks?
Here is a systematic and easy to follow plan to succeed. Just believe me, you can get pass mark by following the instructions religiously.

1. Don’t leave a single question.

During the cool off time go through all the questions and decide the questions known well to you and mark them to attempt in the first round. Then have a look at the questions which may take some time to solve or of which you have some idea but the answer is not completely known. The rest of questions can be kept for third round where you will write an answer with the concepts known to you based on the hints which you may get from the question itself.

Attempting all questions is very important, because if you write an answer there is a chance to get some marks but if you do not write there is no chance of getting any mark for the question.

2. Practice the frequently asked portions

Please go through “MUST PRACTICE PORTIONS FOR CLASS XII” and practise the portions thoroughly.

3. Practice the Diagrams

You can find a list of important diagrams here shortly.

  1.  Electric field lines due to a points charge, a dipole, two negative charges, two positive charges etc.
  2. Electric field due to a dipole (axial position and equatorial position) diagram for derivation.
  3. Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field
  4. Equipotential surfaces due to a point source, a line of charge and an electric dipole.
  5. Combination of resistors (in series and in parallel)
  6. Combination of cells. (diagram for derivation)
  7. Cyclotron
  8. Motional emf
  9. Mutual inductance of two solenoids
  10. AC generator
  11. AC circuit with R only
  12. AC circuit with L only
  13. AC circuit with C only
  14. LCR AC series circuit
  15. Impedance diagram
  16. LC oscillations
  17. Resonance in LCR series circuit
  18. Transformer
  19. Displacement current
  20. Ray diagram for image formation by Simple Microscope
  21. Ray diagram for image formation by Compound Microscope
  22. Ray diagram for image formation by Telescope in normal adjustment
  23. Ray diagram for image formation by Telescope when final image is at the least distance of distinct vision
  24. Prism formula
  25. Laws of reflection using Huygen’s wave theory
  26. Laws of reflection using Huygen’s wave theory
  27. Experimental arrangement for Young’s double slit experiment
  28. Expression for fringe width in Young’s double slit experiment
  29. Diffraction at a single slit
  30. Binding Energy per nucleon vs Mass number graph
  31. Distinction between conductors, insulators and semiconductors on the basis of energy band diagram.
  32. PN junction diode characteristics (circuit diagram and graph for forward bias and reverse bias)
  33. Half wave rectifier
  34. full wave rectifier
  35. zener diode as voltage regulator
  36. Transistor action
  37. Transistor characteristics in CE configuration (input characteristics and output characteristics)
  38. Transistor amplifier in CE configuration
  39. Download (PDF, 369KB)

  40. All Block diagrams from Communication (posted below)

    Download (PDF, 449KB)


Work done and Kinetic/Potential Energy

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My Physics Class 11 question says that a climber who is 65kg climbs 600m. What is the work done by the climber?

I thought I would have to add both the change in KE and PE. But the answer says that you should simply use mgh (PE).

This is confusing because there should be some work done through movement. Why is KE omitted from calculating the work done that in this case?

Leo asked


man climbing a treeMany problems in Physics are solved by making certain approximations and assumptions to avoid complications. If we consider all factors contributing towards the expenditure of energy there may still different factors, but of less importance for the problem under consideration.

In the question we assume that there is no change in Kinetic Energy involved. Work is not to be done to maintain the KE but to change the KE. Though there may be some changes in speed during the process, we disregard the changes and concentrate only on the change in potential energy, which is actually the work done against gravity.

Even if there is a change in Kinetic Energy, then also the work done against gravity will only be the change in potential energy (mgh). He may be doing work against friction and also the change his speed during the climbing process, but the work done against gravity would remain the same (mgh)

If the question had mentioned this (work done against gravitation) then confusion could have been avoided.


Hope that the idea is clear now. If you need further clarifications please respond via the comment form.

OPTICS – Question Bank based on Board Question Papers

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Download the following question bank on optics based on CBSE board question papers

Download (PDF, 516KB)

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