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How is the surface tension direction found out?

Can you, sir, explain point 44 of the attached image on surface tension.

Here’s the link in case attachment doesn’t work:
http://www.sakshieducation.com/EAMCET/QR/Physics/Jr%20Phy/12Surface%20tension%20_198-208_.pdf

How is the surface tension direction found out?
{i know it tangential but in which direction along the tangent?}
Also why is surface tension for Solid-Air Surface considered when balancing forces on liquid?

Surface-tension-12345

 

Asked Abhi

Answer: Surface tension acts tangential to the surface of a liquid. If we imagine a line on the free surface of a liquid, the force of surface tension acts perpendicular to this line and tangential to the surface.

At a solid liquid interface the forces of cohesion and adhesion come to play.

In the diagram, T does not necessarily represent Surface Tension. Please remember that surface tension is the property of a liquid at surface.

Here T2 and T3 stand for the force at the point of contact along the solid surface. Further discussions are welcomed.

 

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