## NAVSTAR : GPS NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Anjum Haseeb asks:

What is NAVSTAR navigation system?

* Answer*:

**NAVSTAR** stands for Navigation System using Timing And ranging.

It consists of at least 24 satellites in 6 orbital planes.

Each satellite circles the Earth twice every day at an altitude of 20,200 kilometers.

The satellites are equipped with atomic clocks . They continuously broadcast the precise time according to their own clock, along with information including the orbital elements of their own motion, as determined by a set of ground-based observatories.

Find more details at

- http://www.spacetoday.org/Satellites/GPS.html
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System
- http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sat/gps.htm
- http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/constellations/navstar-gps_consum.shtml
- http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/N/NAVSTAR.html

## Electric Flux Misconception

Megha asked:

“Could you please tell me if electric flux is defined as no of lines passing through the area then its ans should only be scalar like 5,8,1,6 etc. why its units are given?”

**Answer**:

[warning]Electric Flux is a **scalar quantity**[/warning]

Please note that electric field lines are **imaginary **lines to represent electric field diagrammatically. And the definition of electric flux in terms of electric lines of force is just a visual aid to understand the concept of electric flux. The actual definition is not in terms of electric lines of force. If it were so, try finding the answers to these questions too and you will realise the problem

- “If electric flux through a spherical surface around a point charge is one, then you may feel that there is only one line of force. In which direction will it be? By symmetry, there must be electric field in all directions around a point charge”
- “What is the electric flux due to the smallest charge existing freely, i.e; the charge of an electron? When calculated, it comes to be of the order of
2 x 10-8.How can thenumber of linesbe a fraction?

Please see the definintion of electric flux here:

Wikipedia:

“The electric flux through a small area is given by

(the electric field,

E, multiplied by the component of area perpendicular to the field). The electric flux over a surfaceSis therefore given by the surface integral:

where

Eis the electric field and dAis a differential area on the closed surfaceSwith an outward facing surface normal defining its direction.”

Hyperphysics:

Please refer http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/gaulaw.html#c3

“The electric flux through a planar area is defined as the electric field times the component of the area perpendicular to the field.”

Watch a video on electric flux here